All Choices Can Have Unintended Consequences. When Those Outcomes Affect Someone Who Had No Part In The Initial Choice, What Is It Called? (2023)

1. Lesson 1: Opportunity Cost - Foundation For Teaching Economics

  • Missing: outcomes | Show results with:outcomes

  • Concepts: Opportunity Cost Scarcity Capital Goods Choice Consumer Goods Communism Content Standards and Benchmarks (1, 3 and 15): Standard 1:  Productive resources are limited. Therefore, people cannot have all the goods and services they want; as a result, they must choose some things and give up others. Benchmarks: Whenever a choice is made, something is […]

2. Unintended Consequences - Econlib

  • Missing: choices initial choice,

  • The law of unintended consequences, often cited but rarely defined, is that actions of people—and especially of government—always have effects that are unanticipated or unintended. Economists and other social scientists have heeded its power for centuries; for just as long, politicians and popular opinion have largely ignored it. The concept of unintended consequences is one […]

Unintended Consequences - Econlib

3. The unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures matter

  • Feb 10, 2021 · Unintended consequences are changes brought by an intervention other than those it aims to achieve [9]. They can be far-reaching and just as ...

  • COVID-19 has led to the adoption of unprecedented mitigation measures which could trigger many unintended consequences. These unintended consequences can be far-reaching and just as important as the intended ones. The World Health Organization identified the assessment of unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures as a top priority. Thus far, however, their systematic assessment has been neglected due to the inattention of researchers as well as the lack of training and practical tools. Over six years our team has gained extensive experience conducting research on the unintended consequences of complex health interventions. Through a reflexive process, we developed insights that can be useful for researchers in this area. Our analysis is based on key literature and lessons learned reflexively in conducting multi-site and multi-method studies on unintended consequences. Here we present practical guidance for researchers wishing to assess the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures. To ensure resource allocation, protocols should include research questions regarding unintended consequences at the outset. Social science theories and frameworks are available to help assess unintended consequences. To determine which changes are unintended, researchers must first understand the intervention theory. To facilitate data collection, researchers can begin by forecasting potential unintended consequences through literature reviews and discussions with stakeholders. Including desirable and neutral unintended consequences in the scope of study can help minimize the negative bias reported in the literature. Exploratory methods can be powerful tools to capture data on the unintended consequences that were unforeseen by researchers. We recommend researchers cast a wide net by inquiring about different aspects of the mitigation measures. Some unintended consequences may only be observable in subsequent years, so longitudinal approaches may be useful. An equity lens is necessary to assess how mitigation measures may unintentionally increase disparities. Finally, stakeholders can help validate the classification of consequences as intended or unintended. Studying the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures is not only possible but also necessary to assess their overall value. The practical guidance presented will help program planners and evaluators gain a more comprehensive understanding of unintended consequences to refine mitigation measures.

The unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures matter

4. [PDF] The Nature of Policy Change and Implementation: A Review ... - OECD

  • Change is a major part of our lives, whether it is change in industries, technologies or various sectors such as transportation, education, health care or ...

5. More Is Not Always Better: Intuitions About Effective Public Policy Can ...

More Is Not Always Better: Intuitions About Effective Public Policy Can ...

6. [PDF] Research on the Impact of Technology on Policing Strategy in the 21st ...

  • Over the past several decades, policing agencies have implemented an array of technological advancements to improve operational efficiency and outcomes, ...

7. The Hidden Traps in Decision Making - Harvard Business Review

  • Missing: unintended | Show results with:unintended

  • Bad decisions can often be traced back to the way the decisions were made–the alternatives were not clearly defined, the right information was not collected, the costs and benefits were not accurately weighed. But sometimes the fault lies not in the decision-making process but rather in the mind of the decision maker. The way the human brain works can sabotage the choices we make. In this article, first published in 1998, John Hammond, Ralph Keeney, and Howard Raiffa examine eight psychological traps that can affect the way we make business decisions. The anchoring trap leads us to give disproportionate weight to the first information we receive. The status quo trap biases us toward maintaining the current situation–even when better alternatives exist. The sunk-cost trap inclines us to perpetuate the mistakes of the past. The confirming-evidence trap leads us to seek out information supporting an existing predilection and to discount opposing information. The framing trap occurs when we misstate a problem, undermining the entire decision-making process. The overconfidence trap makes us overestimate the accuracy of our forecasts. The prudence trap leads us to be overcautious when we make estimates about uncertain events. And the recallability trap prompts us to give undue weight to recent, dramatic events. The best way to avoid all the traps is awareness–forewarned is forearmed. But executives can also take other simple steps to protect themselves and their organizations from these mental lapses. The authors describe what managers can do to ensure that their important business decisions are sound and reliable.

The Hidden Traps in Decision Making - Harvard Business Review

8. The unintended consequences of COVID-19 vaccine policy

  • Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and ...

  • Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their potential unintended consequences. Here, we outline a comprehensive set of hypotheses for why these policies may ultimately be counterproductive and harmful. Our framework considers four domains: (1) behavioural psychology, (2) politics and law, (3) socioeconomics, and (4) the integrity of science and public health. While current vaccines appear to have had a significant impact on decreasing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality burdens, we argue that current mandatory vaccine policies are scientifically questionable and are likely to cause more societal harm than good. Restricting people’s access to work, education, public transport and social life based on COVID-19 vaccination status impinges on human rights, promotes stigma and social polarisation, and adversely affects health and well-being. Current policies may lead to a widening of health and economic inequalities, detrimental long-term impacts on trust in government and scientific institutions, and reduce the uptake of future public health measures, including COVID-19 vaccines as well as routine immunisations. Mandating vaccination is one of the most powerful interventions in public health and should be used sparingly and carefully to uphold ethical norms and trust in institutions. We argue that current COVID-19 vaccine policies should be re-evaluated in light of the negative consequences that we outline. Leveraging empowering strategies based on trust and public consultation, and improving healthcare services and infrastructure, represent a more sustainable approach to optimising COVID-19 vaccination programmes and, more broadly, the health and well-being of the public. There are no data in this work.

9. Choice and Allocation - The Behavioral and Social Sciences

  • ... can have any effect at all, then it completely dominates all other effects. ... have unintended consequences, some desirable and some not. Some significant ...

  • This chapter is mainly about situations in which people make choices and goods and services are distributed. The most familiar such situation is the market, but choices and allocation play essential roles in all organizational and political contexts. Among the questions that have come to dominate recent research in this area are the following: What are the distinctive features of collective—in contrast with individual—choice and decision making? Is it true that “who controls the agenda controls the decision,” and if so, in what sense? What do electorates really choose, and how does the choice situation presented to them affect the outcome? What are the forms and consequences of internal political struggles within organizations? How do external, institutional constraints (such as constituencies interested in the fate of organizations) affect these processes?

Choice and Allocation - The Behavioral and Social Sciences

10. Section VII- Proving Discrimination- Disparate Impact

  • § 42.104(b)(2) (emphasis added)(DOJ regulations). The Supreme Court has repeatedly held that Title VI regulations validly prohibit practices having a ...

  • A.  Introduction

11. Section 5. Collecting and Analyzing Data - Community Tool Box

  • Learn how to collect your data and analyze it, figuring out what it means, so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work.

12. [PDF] Supporting Child and Student Social, Emotional, Behavioral, and Mental ...

  • Unmet mental health needs can be barriers to staying on task or learning new information, schools may consider their efforts to ensure all students have access ...

13. 3. Public policy for fairness and efficiency - CORE Econ

  • Public policies are evaluated on the basis of whether their intended outcomes are efficient and fair, and whether they can be implemented. People may consider ...

  • A resource for teaching economic principles to students from any programme of study, with a focus on developing analytical and data handling skills.

3. Public policy for fairness and efficiency - CORE Econ

14. [PDF] the impact of artificial intelligence on the future of workforces in the ...

  • Dec 5, 2022 · AI is a fast-evolving technology with great potential to make workers more productive, to make firms more efficient, and to spur innovations in ...

15. 4. Social interactions – The Economy - CORE Econ

  • The pursuit of self-interest can sometimes lead to results that are considered good by all participants, or outcomes that none of the participants would prefer.

  • A combination of self-interest, a regard for the wellbeing of others, and appropriate institutions can yield desirable social outcomes when people interact

4. Social interactions – The Economy - CORE Econ

16. [PDF] SAMHSA TIP 35 Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance ...

  • had it or did not have it, and there was nothing a counselor could do to influence it ... that people have choices (even if all the choices have a downside) ...

17. 5 Replicability | Reproducibility and Replicability in Science

  • Many direct replication studies are not reported as such. Replication—especially of surprising results or those that could have a major impact—occurs in science ...

  • Read chapter 5 Replicability: One of the pathways by which the scientific community confirms the validity of a new scientific discovery is by repeating th...

5 Replicability | Reproducibility and Replicability in Science
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